2014

WHAT DO LONGER TESTS TELL US ABOUT FRACTURE AND STABILITY?
Bair, Edward H., Ron Simenhois, Alec van Herwijnen, and Karl Birkeland
Proceedings of the 2014 International Snow Science Workshop, Banff, Alberta

DECISION-MAKING AND AVALANCHE MITIGATION DURING A RAPID ONSET WET SLAB AVALANCHE CYCLE
Baugher, Paul and Karl W. Birkeland
Proceedings of the 2014 International Snow Science Workshop, Banff, Alberta

THE ROLE OF SLABS AND WEAK LAYERS IN FRACTURE ARREST
Birkeland, Karl W., Alec van Herwijnen, Eric Knoff, Mark Staples, Edward Bair, and Ron Simenhois
Proceedings of the 2014 International Snow Science Workshop, Banff, Alberta

THE EFFECT OF CHANGING SLOPE ANGLE ON COMPRESSION TEST RESULTS
Birkeland, Karl W., Edward Bair and Doug Chabot
Proceedings of the 2014 International Snow Science Workshop, Banff, Alberta

MAPPING STARTING ZONE SNOW DEPTH WITH A GROUND-BASED LIDAR TO IMPROVE AVALANCHE CONTROL AND FORECASTING
Deems, Jeffrey S., Peter J. Gadomski, Dominic Vellone, Ryan Evanczyk, Adam LeWinter,
Karl W. Birkeland, and David C. Finnegan
Proceedings of the 2014 International Snow Science Workshop, Banff, Alberta

DISCRETE ELEMENT MODELING OF CRACK PROPAGATION IN WEAK SNOWPACK LAYERS
Gaume, Johan, Alec van Herwijnen, Jürg Schweizer, Guillaume Chambon and Karl Birkeland
Proceedings of the 2014 International Snow Science Workshop, Banff, Alberta

FRACTURE SPEEDS OF TRIGGERED AVALANCHES
Hamre, Dave, Ron Simenhois, and Karl W. Birkeland
Proceedings of the 2014 International Snow Science Workshop, Banff, Alberta

EXAMINING THE SLOPE SCALE SPATIAL VARIABILITY OF EXTENDED COLUMN TEST RESULTS
Hoyer, Ian, Jordy Hendrikx and Karl W. Birkeland
Proceedings of the 2014 International Snow Science Workshop, Banff, Alberta

METEOROLOGICAL VARIABLES ASSOCIATED WITH DEEP SLAB AVALANCHES ON PERSISTENT WEAK LAYERS
Marienthal, Alex, Jordy Hendrikx, Karl Birkeland, Kathryn M. Irvine
Proceedings of the 2014 International Snow Science Workshop, Banff, Alberta

OBSERVATIONS OF FRACTURE ARREST AT SLAB AVALANCHE BOUNDARIES
Simenhois, Ron, and Karl W. Birkeland
Proceedings of the 2014 International Snow Science Workshop, Banff, Alberta

DEVELOPING OPERATIONAL GUIDELINES TO REDUCE WORKER RISK AT US AVALANCHE CENTERS
Trautman, Simon A., and Karl W. Birkeland
Proceedings of the 2014 International Snow Science Workshop, Banff, Alberta

THE EFFECTS OF CANOPY COVER AND SHADING ON SURFACE HOAR SIZES IN SMALL FORESTED MEADOW OPENINGS
Wieland, Matt, Jordy Hendrikx, Karl W Birkeland
Proceedings of the 2014 International Snow Science Workshop, Banff, Alberta

ROLE OF SYNOPTIC ATMOSPHERIC CONDITIONS IN THE FORMATION AND DISTRIBUTION OF SURFACE HOAR
Yokley, Lauren, Jordy Hendrikx, Karl Birkeland, Kaj Williams, Tom Leonard
Proceedings of the 2014 International Snow Science Workshop, Banff, Alberta

2012

A field study on failure of storm snow slab avalanches
Bair, E.H., R. Simenhois, K.W. Birkeland, and J. Dozier.  2012.  A field study on failure of storm snow slab avalanches.  Cold Regions Science and Technology 79-80, 20-28.

Use of a thermal imager for snow pit temperatures
Shea, C., B. Jamieson, and K.W. Birkeland.  2012. Use of a thermal imager for snow pit temperatures. The Cryosphere 6, 287-299.

STORM SNOW AVALANCHES: CHARACTERISTICS AND FORECASTING
Bair, E.H., R. Simenhois, A. van Herwijnen, K.W. Birkeland, and J. Dozier.  2012.  Storm snow avalanches: Characteristics and forecasting.  Proceedings of the 2012 International Snow Science Workshop, Anchorage, Alaska.

CRUST THOUGHTS
Birkeland, K.W. 2012. Crust thoughts.  The Avalanche Review 30(3), 1, 20.

CHANGES IN STABILITY TEST USAGE BY SNOWPILOT USERS
Birkeland, K.W. and D. Chabot. 2012. Changes in stability test usage by SnowPilot users.  Proceedings of the 2012 International Snow Science Workshop, Anchorage, Alaska.

Thompson Pass Weather Station Supports Research and Forecasting
Birkeland, K.W. and T. Meiners. 2012. Thompson Pass weather station supports research and forecasting. The Avalanche Review 30(3), 11.

USING HIGH-SPEED VIDEO TO BETTER UNDERSTAND EXTENDED COLUMN TESTS
Birkeland, K.W. and A. van Herwijnen. 2012. Using high speed video to better understand extended column tests.  Proceedings of the 2012 International Snow Science Workshop, Anchorage, Alaska.

SURFACE HOAR DISTRIBUTION AT THE SCALE OF A HELICOPTER SKIING OPERATION
Borish, M., K.W. Birkeland, S. Custer, S. Challendar, and J. Hendrikx. 2012. Surface hoar distribution at the scale of a helicopter skiing operation. Proceedings of the 2012 International Snow Science Workshop, Anchorage, Alaska.

POTENTIAL DRY SLAB AVALANCHE TRIGGER ZONES ON WIND-AFFECTED SLOPES
Eckerstorfer, M., W.R. Farnsworth, and K.W. Birkeland. 2012. Potential dry slab avalanche trigger zones on wind-affected slopes. Proceedings of the 2012 International Snow Science Workshop, Anchorage, Alaska.

METEOROLOGICAL TOWER DESIGN FOR SEVERE WEATHER AND REMOTE LOCATIONS
Elder, K. and 37 others. 2012. Meteorological tower design for severe weather and remote locations. Proceedings of the 2012 International Snow Science Workshop, Anchorage, Alaska.

AVALANCHE TRIGGER LOCATIONS IN COMPLEX TERRAIN
Guy, Z.M. and K.W. Birkeland. 2012. Avalanche trigger locations in complex terrain. Proceedings of the 2012 International Snow Science Workshop, Anchorage, Alaska.

DEPTH HOAR, AVALANCHES, AND WET SLABS: A CASE STUDY OF THE HISTORIC MARCH, 2012 WET SLAB AVALANCHE CYCLE AT BRIDGER BOWL, MONTANA
Marienthal, A., J. Hendrikx, D. Chabot, P. Maleski, and K.W. Birkeland. 2012. Depth hoar, avalanches, and wet slabs: A case study of the historic March 2012 wet slab avalanche cycle at Bridger Bowl, Montana. Proceedings of the 2012 International Snow Science Workshop, Anchorage, Alaska.

USING A THERMAL IMAGER TO QUANTIFY BURIED THERMAL STRUCTURE IN NATURAL SNOW
Shea, C., B. Jamieson, and K.W. Birkeland. 2012. Using a thermal imager to quantify buried thermal structure in natural snow. Proceedings of the 2012 International Snow Science Workshop, Anchorage, Alaska.

THE LIFE OF A SHALLOW SNOWPACK
Shea, C., B. Jamieson, and K.W. Birkeland.  2012.  The life of a shallow snowpack. Poster showing the weekly and, for one day, the hourly thermal evolution of a thin Canadian snowpack during the 2010/11 winter

HOT CRUST,
Shea, C., B. Jamieson, and K.W. Birkeland.  2012. Hot crust, cold crust. The Avalanche Review 30(3), 28.

MEASUREMENTS OF ECT SCORES AND CRACK-FACE FRICTION IN NON-PERSISTENT WEAK LAYERS: WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTITIONERS?
Simenhois, R., K.W. Birkeland, and A. van Herwijnen. 2012. Measurements of ECT scores and crack-face friction in non-persistent weak layers: What are the implications for practitioners? Proceedings of the 2012 International Snow Science Workshop, Anchorage, Alaska.

THE EFFECTIVENESS OF BOOT PACKING FOR SNOWPACK STABILIZATION
Wieland, M., J. Hendrikx, and K.W. Birkeland. 2012. The effectiveness of boot packing for snowpack stabilization. Proceedings of the 2012 International Snow Science Workshop, Anchorage, Alaska.

THE EFFECTS OF EXPLOSIVES ON THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SNOW
Wooldridge, R.E., J. Hendrikx, D.A. Miller, and K.W. Birkeland. The effects of explosives on the physical properties of snow. Proceedings of the 2012 International Snow Science Workshop, Anchorage, Alaska.

2011

Anticrack model for skier triggering of slab avalanches [Article Reprint] [Formatted Article]
Heierli, J., K.W. Birkeland, R. Simenhois, and P. Gumbsch. 2011. Anticrack model for skier triggering of slab avalanches. Cold Regions Science and Technology 65(3), 372-381.

Spatial patterns of surface hoar properties and incoming radiation on an inclined forest opening
Lutz, E.R. and K.W. Birkeland. 2011. Spatial patterns of surface hoar properties and incoming radiation on an inclined forest opening. Journal of Glaciology 57(202), 355-366.

Fracture mechanical and statistical properties of avalanches that fail on nonpersistent snow crystals (17MB)
Bair, E.H. 2011. Fracture mechanical and statistical properties of avalanches that fail on nonpersistent snow crystals. Ph.D. Dissertation, Bren School of Environmental Science, University of California at Santa Barbara, 188 pp.

THE INFLUENCE OF TERRAIN PARAMETERS ON THE SPATIAL VARIABILITY OF POTENTIAL AVALANCHE TRIGGER LOCATIONS IN COMPLEX AVALANCHE TERRAIN (12MB)
Guy, Z.M. 2011. The influence of terrain parameters on the spatial variability of potential avalanche trigger locations in complex avalanche terrain. M.S. Thesis, Department of Earth Sciences, Montana State University, 245 pp.

ACCURATELY ASSESSING AVALANCHE SIZE: The Ins and Outs of the R- and D-Scales
Birkeland, K.W. and E. Greene. 2011. Accurately assessing avalanche size: The ins and outs of the R- and D-scales. The Avalanche Review 29(3), 27, 32.

Promoting Avalanche Awareness in the Snowmobile Capital of the World
Chabot, D. 2011. Promoting avalanche awareness in the snowmobile capital of the world. The Avalanche Review 29(3), 14-15.

The Effect of Changing Snowpack and Terrain Factors on ECT Results
Simenhois, R. and K.W. Birkeland. 2011. The effect of changing snowpack and terrain factors on ECT results. The Avalanche Review 29(3), 1, 22-23.

2010

On optimal stability-test spacing for assessing snow avalanche conditions
Birkeland, K.W., J. Hendrikx, and M. Clark. 2010. On optimal stability-test spacing for assessing snow avalanche conditions. Journal of Glaciology 56(199), 795-804.

In situ and photographic measurements of avalanche crown transects
Bair, E.H., K.W. Birkeland, and J. Dozier. 2010. In situ and photographic measurements of avalanche crown transects.  Cold Regions Science and Technology 64, 174-181.

PATTERNS OF NATURAL AVALANCHE ACTIVITY ASSOCIATED WITH NEW SNOW WATER EQUIVALANCE AND UPPER ATMOSPHERIC WIND DIRECTION AND SPEED IN THE MOUNTAINS SURROUNDING GOTHIC, COLORADO (3 MB)
Chesley-Preston, T.L. 2010. Patterns of natural avalanche activity associated with new snow water equivalence and upper atmospheric wind direction and speed in the mountains surrounding Gothic, Colorado.  M.S. Thesis, Department of Earth Sciences, Montana State University, 75 pp.

OUT OF BOUNDS SKIERS AND AVALANCHE RISK: HIGH-RISK COHORT IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION (3 MB)
Gunn, M. 2010. Out of bounds skiers and avalanche risk: High risk cohort identification and characterization. Master of Resource Management Thesis, School of Resource and Environmental Management, Simon Fraser University, 157 pp.

THE EFFECT OF CHANGING SLOPE ANGLE ON EXTENDED COLUMN TEST RESULTS: CAN WE DIG PITS IN SAFER LOCATIONS?
Birkeland, K.W., R. Simenhois, and J. Heierli. 2010. The effect of changing slope angle on extended column test results: Can we dig pits in safer locations?  Proceedings of the 2010 International Snow Science Workshop, Squaw Valley, California.

THE SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF TWO SURFACE HOAR EVENTS IN THE CHILKAT AND TAKHINSHA MOUNTAINS OF SOUTHEAST ALASKA
Borish, M., K.W. Birkeland, S. Challender, and S. Custer.  2010.  The spatial distribution of two surface hoar events in the Chilkat and Takhinsha Mountains of southeast Alaska.  Proceedings of the 2010 International Snow Science Workshop, Squaw Valley, California. 

2010 SADDLE PEAK AVALANCHE: SIDECOUNTRY CHALLENGES, MISCONCEPTIONS, AND LESSONS
Chabot, D., M. Staples, K.W. Birkeland, and E. Knoff. 2010. 2010 Saddle Peak Avalanche: Sidecountry challenges, misconceptions, and lessons learned.  Proceedings of the 2010 International Snow Science Workshop, Squaw Valley, California.

SURVEY OF US AVALANCHE CENTERS
Ferber, G., and D. Abromeit.  Survey of U.S. avalanche centers. Proceedings of the 2010 International Snow Science Workshop, Squaw Valley, California.

SPATIAL VARIABILITY IN STEEP COULOIRS: WEAK LAYER VARIATION WITH RESPECT TO WIND DIRECTION
Guy, Z.M. and K.W. Birkeland. 2010. Spatial variability in steep couloirs: Weak layer variation with respect to wind direction.  Proceedings of the 2010 International Snow Science Workshop, Squaw Valley, California.

NEW INSIGHTS INTO SKIER-TRIGGERING OF SLAB AVALANCHES
Heierli, J., K.W. Birkeland, R. Simenhois, and P. Gumbsch. 2010. New insights into skier-triggering of slab avalanches.  Proceedings of the 2010 International Snow Science Workshop, Squaw Valley, California.

I’ll have mine shaken, not loaded. Earthquake-Induced Avalanching in Canterbury, New Zealand
Hendrikx, J., A. Hobman and K.W. Birkeland. 2010. I'll have mine shaken, not loaded: Earthquake-induced avalanching in Canterbury, New Zealand.  The Avalanche Review 29(2), 22-24.

The effect of additional snow load on Extended Column Test and Propagation Saw Test results
Simenhois, R. and K.W. Birkeland. 2010. The effect of additional snow load on Extended Column Test and Propagation Saw Test results.  Proceedings of the 2010 International Snow Science Workshop, Squaw Valley, California.

Meteorological and Environmental Observations from Three Glide Avalanche Cycles and the Resulting Hazard Management Technique
Simenhois, R. and K.W. Birkeland. 2010. Meteorological and environmental observations from three glide avalanche cycles and resulting hazard mitigation techniques.  Proceedings of the 2010 International Snow Science Workshop, Squaw Valley, California.

THE NORTH AMERICAN PUBLIC AVALANCHE DANGER SCALE
Statham, G., P. Haegeli, K.W. Birkeland, E. Greene, C. Israelson, B. Tremper, C. Stethem, B. McMahon, B. White, and J. Kelly.  2010.  The North American avalanche danger scale.  Proceedings of the 2010 International Snow Science Workshop, Squaw Valley, California. 

A CONCEPTUAL MODEL OF AVALANCHE HAZARD
Statham, G., P. Haegeli, K.W. Birkeland, E. Greene, C. Israelson, B. Tremper, C. Stethem, B. McMahon, B. White, and J. Kelly.  2010.  A conceptual model of avalanche hazard.  Proceedings of the 2010 International Snow Science Workshop, Squaw Valley, California.

2009

Assessing changes in the spatial variability of the snowpack fracture propagation propensity over time
Hendrikx, J., K.W. Birkeland, and M. Clark. 2009. Assessing changes in the spatial variability of snowpack fracture propagation propensity over time. Cold Regions Science and Technology 56, 152-160.

Quantifying changes in weak layer microstructure associated with artificial load changes
Lutz, E.R., K.W. Birkeland, and H.P. Marshall.  2009.  Quantifying changes in weak layer microstucture associated with artificial load changes.  Cold Regions Science and Technology 59 (2-3), 202-209.

The Extended Column Test: Test effectiveness, spatial variability, and comparison with the Propagation Saw Test
Simenhois, R. and K.W. Birkeland.  2009.  The Extended Column Test: Test effectiveness, spatial variability, and comparison with the Propagation Saw Test.  Cold Regions Science and Technology 59(2-3), 210-216.

SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL ANALYSIS OF SNOWPACK STRENGTH AND STABILITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL DETERMINANTS ON AN INCLINED, FOREST OPENING (28 MB)
Lutz, E.L. 2009. Spatial and temporal analysis of snowpack strength and stability and environmental determinants on an inclined, forest opening.  Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Earth Sciences, Montana State University.  364 pp.

WATER MOVEMENT IN A STRATIFIED AND INCLINED SNOWPACK: IMPLICATIONS FOR WET SLAB AVALANCHES (5.5 MB)
Peitzsch, E.H. 2009.  Water movement in a stratified and inclined snowpack: Implications for wet slab avalanches.  M.S. Thesis, Department of Earth Sciences, Montana State University.  162 pp.

In situ and photogrammetric measurements of avalanche crown transects
Bair, E.H., K.W. Birkeland, and J. Dozier.  2009.  In-situ and photogrammetric measurements of avalanche crown transects.  Proceedings of the 2009 International Snow Science Workshop, Davos, Switzerland, 395-399.

Spatial variability and the extended column test: Results from Mount Hutt
Hendrikx, J. and K.W. Birkeland. 2009. Spatial variability and the extended column test: Results from Mount Hutt.  The Crystal Ball 18(3), 17-20.

FRACTURE PROPAGATION: Recent Research and Implications
Story by Karl Birkeland, Jürg Schweizer, and Bruce Jamieson
THE AVALANCHE REVIEW VOL. 27, NO. 4, APRIL 2009

2008

Avalanche crown-depth distributions
Bair, E.H., J. Dozier, and K.W. Birkeland.  2008. Avalanche crown-depth distributions. Geophysical Research Letters 35, doi: 10.1029/2008GL035788.

Review of spatial variability of snowpack properties and its importance for avalanche formation
Schweizer, J., K. Kronholm, J.B. Jamieson, and K.W. Birkeland. 2008. Review of spatial variability of snowpack properties and its importance for avalanche formation. Cold Regions Science and Technology 51(2-3): 253-272.

The effects of slope aspect on the formation of surface hoar and diurnally recrystallized near-surface faceted crystals (21 MB)
Cooperstein, M.S. 2008.  The effects of slope aspect on the formation of surface hoar and diurnally recrystallized near-surface faceted crystals.  M.S. Thesis, Department of Earth Sciences, Montana State University.  169 pp.

Avalanche crown depth distributions
Bair, E.H., J. Dozier, and K.W. Birkeland.  2008.  Avalanche crown depth distributions.  Proceedings of the 2008 International Snow Science Workshop, Whistler, British Columbia, Canada.

Avalanche survival strategies for different parts of a flowing avalanche: Merging theory and practice to increase your odds
Birkeland, K.W., P. Bartelt, and T. Meiners. 2008. Avalanche survival strategies for different parts of a flowing avalanche: Merging theory and practice to increase your odds. The Avalanche Review 26(3), February, 2008.

Avalanche survival strategies for different parts of a flowing avalanche
Birkeland, K.W., T. Meiners, and P. Bartelt.  2008.  Avalanche survival strategies for different parts of a flowing avalanche.  Proceedings of the 2008 International Snow Science Workshop, Whistler, British Columbia, Canada.

The extended column test:  Test effectiveness, spatial variability, and comparison with the propagation saw test
Birkeland, K.W. and R. Simenhois.  2008.  The extended column test:  Test effectiveness, spatial variability, and comparison with the propagation saw test.  Proceedings of the 2008 International Snow Science Workshop, Whistler, British Columbia, Canada.

Slope scale spatial variability across time and space: Comparison of results from two different snow climates
Hendrikx, J. and K.W. Birkeland.  2008.  Slope scale spatial variability across time and space: Comparison of results from two different snow climates.  Proceedings of the 2008 International Snow Science Workshop, Whistler, British Columbia, Canada.

Quantifying changes in weak layer microstructure associated with loading events
Lutz, E., K.W. Birkeland, H.-P. Marshall, and K. Hansen.  2008.  Quantifying changes in weak layer microstructure associated with loading events.  Proceedings of the 2008 International Snow Science Workshop, Whistler, British Columbia, Canada.

Helicopter-based microwave radar measurements in alpine terrain
Marshall, H.-P., K.W. Birkeland, K. Elder, and T. Meiners.  2008.  Helicopter-based microwave radar measurements in alpine terrain.  Proceedings of the 2008 International Snow Science Workshop, Whistler, British Columbia, Canada.

Mixed effect and spatial correlation models for analyzing a regional spatial dataset
Mullen, R. and K.W. Birkeland.  2008.  Mixed effect and spatial correlation models for analyzing a regional spatial dataset.  Proceedings of the 2008 International Snow Science Workshop, Whistler, British Columbia, Canada.

Avalanche frequency and magnitude:  Using power law exponents to investigate snow avalanche size proportions through time and space
Naisbitt, A., R. Forster, K.W. Birkeland, and W.L. Harrison.  2008.  Avalanche frequency and magnitude:  Using power law exponents to investigate snow avalanche size proportions through time and space.  Proceedings of the 2008 International Snow Science Workshop, Whistler, British Columbia, Canada.

Water movement and capillary barriers in a stratified and inclined snowpack
Peitzsch, E., K.W. Birkeland, and K.J. Hansen.  2008.  Water movement and capillary barriers in a stratified and inclined snowpack.  Proceedings of the 2008 International Snow Science Workshop, Whistler, British Columbia, Canada.

The effect of changing slab thickness on fracture propagation
Simenhois, R. and K.W. Birkeland.  2008.  The effect of changing slab thickness on fracture propagation.  Proceedings of the 2008 International Snow Science Workshop, Whistler, British Columbia, Canada.

Extended column test results during surface warming:  Does surface warming affect fracture propagation potential?
Simenhois, R. and K.W. Birkeland.  2008.  Extended column test results during surface warming:  Does surface warming affect fracture propagation potential?  Proceedings of the 2008 International Snow Science Workshop, Whistler, British Columbia, Canada.

2007

Reliability of sampling designs for spatial snow surveys
Kronholm, K. and K.W. Birkeland. 2007. Reliability of sampling designs for spatial snow surveys. Computers and Geosciences 33, 1097-1110, doi:10.1016/j.cageo.2006.10.004.

Temporal changes in the slope-scale spatial variability of the shear strength of buried surface hoar layers
Logan, S., K.W. Birkeland, K. Kronholm, and K. Hansen. 2007. Temporal changes in the slope-scale spatial variability of the shear strength of buried surface hoar layers. Cold Regions Science and Technology 47(1-2), 148-158, doi:10.1016/j.coldregions.2006.08.002.

Surface hoar characteristics derived from a snow micropenetrometer using moving window statistical operations
Lutz, E.R., K.W. Birkeland, K. Kronholm, K. Hansen, and R. Aspinall. 2007. Surface hoar characteristics derived from a snow micropenetrometer using moving window statistical operations. Cold Regions Science and Technology 47(1-2), 118-133, doi:10.1016/j.coldregions.2006.08.021.

Validation of a capacitance snow density probe in an avalanche forecasting setting (5.5 MB)
Conger, S.M. 2007. Validation of a capacitance snow density probe in an avalanche forecasting setting. M.S. Thesis, Department of Geography, University of British Columbia. 110 pp.

The thermophysical and microstructural effects of an artificial ice layer in natural snow under kinetic growth metamorphism (25 MB)
Greene, E.M.  2007.  The thermophysical and microstructural effects of an artificial ice layer in natural snow under kinetic growth metamorphism.  Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Geosciences, Colorado State University.  147 pp.

Wet loose snow avalanching in southwestern Montana (7.6 MB)
Trautman, S.A. 2007. Wet loose snow avalanching in southwestern Montana. M.S. Thesis, Department of Earth Sciences, Montana State University. 115 pp.

An update on the Extended Column Test: New recording standards and additional data analyses
Simenhois, R. and K.W. Birkeland. 2007. An update on the Extended Column Test: New recording standards and additional data analyses. The Avalanche Review 26(2), December, 2007.

2006

Field measurements of sintering after fracture of snowpack weak layers
Birkeland, K.W., K. Kronholm, S. Logan, and J. Schweizer. 2006. Field measurements of sintering after fracture of snowpack weak layers, Geophysical Research Letters 33, L03501, doi:10.1029/2005GL025104.

New snow density across an elevational gradient in the Park Range of northwestern Colorado (2.8 MB)
Simeral, D. 2006. New snow density across an elevational gradient in the Park Range of northwestern Colorado. M.S. Thesis, Department of Geography, Northern Arizona University. 100 pp.

Minimizing "false stable" stability test results: Why digging more snowpits is a good idea
Birkeland, K.W. and D. Chabot. 2006. Minimizing "false stable" stability test results: Why digging more snowpits is a good idea. Proceedings of the 2006 International Snow Science Workshop, Telluride, Colorado.

Uncertainties in assessing the stability of fractured slopes
Birkeland, K.W., S. Savage, S. Trautman, K. Kronholm, S. Logan, and J. Schweizer. 2006. Uncertainties in assessing the stability of fractured slopes. Proceedings of the 2006 International Snow Science Workshop, Telluride, Colorado.

Fatal avalanche accidents and forecasted danger levels: Pattern in the United States, Canada, Switzerland, and France
Greene, E. T. Wiesinger, K.W. Birkeland, C. Coléou, A. Jones, and G. Statham. Fatal avalanche accidents and forecasted danger levels: Pattern in the United States, Canada, Switzerland, and France. Proceedings of the 2006 International Snow Science Workshop, Telluride, Colorado.

Associations between shear strength of a buried surface hoar layer and stratigraphic, topographic and vegetation characteristics on a "uniform" slope
Lutz, E., K.W. Birkeland, M. Schneebeli, K.J. Hansen, and K. Kronholm. 2006. Associations between shear strength of a buried surface hoar layer and stratigraphic, topographic and vegetation characteristics on a "uniform" slope. Proceedings of the 2006 International Snow Science Workshop, Telluride, Colorado.

Using geographic information systems for avalanche work (14 MB)
McCollister, C. and K.W. Birkeland. 2006. Using geographic information systems for avalanche work. The Avalanche Review, Vol. 24, No. 4

Spatial variability - So what?
Schweizer, J., K. Kronholm, J.B. Jamieson, and K. Birkeland. 2006. Spatial variability - So what? Proceedings of the 2006 International Snow Science Workshop, Telluride, Colorado.

The extended column test: A field test for fracture initiation and propagation
Simenhois, R. and K.W. Birkeland. 2006. The extended column test: A field test for fracture initiation and propagation. Proceedings of the 2006 International Snow Science Workshop, Telluride, Colorado.

Relating wet snow avalanching to surficial shear strength (5.5 MB)
Trautman, S., E. Lutz, K.W. Birkeland, and S.G. Custer. 2006. Relating wet snow avalanching to surficial shear strength. Proceedings of the 2006 International Snow Science Workshop, Telluride, Colorado.

2005

Integrating spatial patterns into a snow avalanche cellular automata model
Kronholm, K. and K.W. Birkeland. 2005. Integrating spatial patterns into a snow avalanche cellular automata model, Geophysical Research Letters 32, L19504, doi:10.1029/2005GL024373.

Temporal changes in the spatial patterns of weak layer shear strength and stability on uniform slopes (5.5 MB)
Logan, S. 2005. Temporal changes in the spatial patterns of weak layer shear strength and stability on uniform slopes. M.S. Thesis, Department of Earth Sciences, Montana State University. 157 pp.

Snow avalanche climate and extremes of the western United States mountain ranges
Mock, C.J., K.W. Birkeland, J.J. Shinker, and M. Bergen. 2005. Snow avalanche climate and extremes of the western United States mountain ranges. Poster presented at the 2005 Meeting of the American Geophysical Union.

2004

Changes in the shear strength and micro-penetration hardness of a buried surface hoar layer
Birkeland, K., K. Kronholm, M. Schneebeli, and C. Pielemeier. 2004. Changes in the shear strength and micro-penetration hardness of a buried surface hoar layer. Annals of Glaciology 38, 223-228.

Variations in snow strength and stability on uniform slopes
Landry, C., K. Birkeland, K. Hansen, J. Borkowski, R. Brown, and R. Aspinall. 2004. Variations in snow strength and stability on uniform slopes. Cold Reg. Sci. Tech. 39, 205-218.

A systems approach to human factors and expert decision-making within Canadian avalanche phenomena (1.9 MB)
Adams, L. 2004. A systems approach to human factors and expert decision-making within Canadian avalanche phenomena. M.A. thesis, Royal Roads University, 285 pp.

Scale analysis of avalanche activity on persistent snowpack weaknesses with respect to large-scale backcountry avalanche forecasting (5.5 MB)
Hägeli, P.T. 2004. Scale analysis of avalanche activity on persistent snowpack weaknesses with respect to large-scale backcountry avalanche forecasting. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Geography, University of British Columbia. 251 pp.

Spatial variability of snow mechanical properties with regard to avalanche formation (6 MB)
Kronholm, K. 2004. Spatial variability of snow mechanical properties with regard to avalanche formation. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Geography, University of Zurich. 187 pp.

Geographic knowledge discovery techniques for exploring historical weather and avalanche data (2.8 MB)
McCollister, C.M. 2004. Geographic knowledge discovery techniques for exploring historical weather and avalanche data. M.S. Thesis, Department of Earth Sciences, Montana State University. 106 pp.

Analytical and experimental study of radiation-recrystallized near-surface facets in snow (20 MB)
Morstad, B.W. 2004. Analytical and experimental study of radiation-recrystallized near-surface facets in snow. M.S. Thesis, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Montana State University. 218 pp. [Warning...big file!

March wet avalanche prediction at Bridger Bowl Ski Area, Montana (2 MB)
Romig, J.M. 2004. March wet avalanche prediction at Bridger Bowl Ski Area, Montana. M.S. Thesis, Department of Earth Sciences, Montana State University. 297 pp.

Influences on backcountry recreationists' risk of exposure to snow avalanche hazards
Tase, J.E. 2004. Influences on backcountry recreationists' risk of exposure to snow avalanche hazards. M.A. Thesis, Department of Geography, University of Montana. 106 pp.

United States military for avalanche control program: A short history in time (7.5 MB)
Abromeit, D. 2004. United States military for avalanche control program: A short history in time. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Snow Monitoring and Avalanches, Manali, India, in press.

Comments on using shear quality and fracture character to improve stability test interpretation
Birkeland, K.W. 2004. Comments on using shear quality and fracture character to improve stability test interpretation. The Avalanche Review, Vol. 23, No. 2.

A comparison of the spatial patterns of penetration resistance of slabs and weak layers
Birkeland, K.W. and K. Kronholm. 2004. A comparison of the spatial patterns of penetration resistance of slabs and weak layers. Proceedings of the 2004 International Snow Science Workshop, Jackson Hole, Wyoming.

A comparison of the spatial structure of the penetration resistance of snow layers in two different snow climates
Birkeland, K., K. Kronholm, and S. Logan. 2004. A comparison of the spatal structure of the penetration resistance of snow layers in two different snow climates. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Snow Monitoring and Avalanches, Manali, India, in press.

Snowpilot: A "new school" tool for collecting, graphing, and databasing snowpit and avalanche occurrence data with a PDA
Chabot, D., M. Kahrl, K. Birkeland, and C. Anker. 2004. Snowpilot: A "new school" tool for collecting, graphing, and databasing snowpit and avalanche occurrence data with a PDA. Proceedings of the 2004 International Snow Science Workshop, Jackson Hole, Wyoming.

The effects of slope aspect on the formation of surface hoar and diurnally recrystallized near-surface faceted crystal: implications for avalanche forecasting
Cooperstein, M., K. Birkeland, and K. Hansen. 2004. The effects of slope aspect on the formation of surface hoar and diurnally recrystallized near-surface faceted crystal: implications for avalanche forecasting. Proceedings of the 2004 International Snow Science Workshop, Jackson Hole, Wyoming.

Snow, weather, and avalanches: Observational guidelines for avalanche programs in the United States
Greene, E.M., K.W. Birkeland, K. Elder, G. Johnson, C. Landry, I. McCammon, M. Moore, D. Sharaf, C. Sterbenz, B. Tremper, and K. Williams. 2004. Snow, weather, and avalanches: Observational guidelines for avalanche programs in the United States. American Avalanche Association, Pagosa Springs, Colorado. 140 pp. [To view the guidelines, go here] [Article for ISSW Proceedings]

Relating spatial variability to snow stability using a cellular automaton model initialized with field data
Kronholm, K. and K.W. Birkeland. 2004. Relating spatial variability to snow stability using a cellular automaton model initialized with field data. Proceedings of the 2004 International Snow Science Workshop, Jackson Hole, Wyoming.

Correlating snow micro-structure with snow shear strength
Lutz, E.R., K.W. Birkeland, K. Kronholm, K. Hansen, and R. Aspinall. 2004. Correlating snow micro-structure with snow shear strength. Proceedings of the 2004 International Snow Science Workshop, Jackson Hole, Wyoming.

Temporal changes in the spatial variability of shear strength and stability
Logan, S., K. Birkeland, K. Kronholm, and K. Hansen. 2004. Temporal changes in the spatial variability of shear strength and stability. Proceedings of the 2004 International Snow Science Workshop, Jackson Hole, Wyoming.

March wet avalanche prediction at Bridger Bowl Ski Area, Montana
Romig, J., S. Custer, K. Birkeland, and W. Locke. 2004. March wet avalanche prediction at Bridger Bowl Ski Area, Montana. Proceedings of the 2004 International Snow Science Workshop, Jackson Hole, Wyoming.

Investigations of melt-induced deformation in an isothermal snowpack / Poster
Trautman, S., S. Custer, and K. Birkeland. 2004. Investigations of melt-induced deformation in an isothermal snowpack. Proceedings of the 2004 International Snow Science Workshop, Jackson Hole, Wyoming.

2003

Variability of snow later hardness by aspect and prediction using meteorological factors
Kozak, M., K. Elder, K. Birkeland and P. Chapman. Variability of snow later hardness by aspect and prediction using meteorological factors. Cold Reg. Sci. Tech. 37(3), 357-371.

Exploring multi-scale spatial patterns in historical avalanche data, Jackson Hole Mountain Resort, Wyoming
McCollister, C., K. Birkeland, K. Hansen, R. Aspinall, R. Comey. Exploring multi-scale spatial patterns in historical avalanche data, Jackson Hole Mountain Resort, Wyoming. Cold Reg. Sci. Tech. 37(3), 299-313.

Topographic effects on the spatial and temporal patterns of snow temperature gradients in a mountain snowpack (2 MB)
Deems, J.S. 2003. Topographic effects on the spatial and temporal patterns of snow temperature gradients in a mountain snowpack. M.S. Thesis, Department of Earth Sciences, Montana State University. 85 pp.

Textural and mechanical variability of mountain snowpacks (4.8 MB)
Pielmeier, C. 2003. Textural and mechanical variability of mountain snowpacks. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Geography, University of Bern. 127 pp.

2002

Power-laws and snow avalanches
Birkeland, K.W. and C.C. Landry. 2002. Power-laws and snow avalanches. Geophysical Research Letters, 29(11), 10.1029/2001GL014623, 49-1 to 49-3.

Spatial variations in snow stability on uniform slopes: Implications for extrapolation to surrounding terrain
Landry, C.C. 2002. Spatial variations in snow stability on uniform slopes: Implications for extrapolation to surrounding terrain. M.S. Thesis, Department of Earth Sciences, Montana State Universtity. 248 pp.

An integrated microstructural study of dry snow metamorphism under generalized thermal conditions (4.6 MB)
Miller, D.A. 2002. An integrated microstructural study of dry snow metamorphism under generalized thermal conditions. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Civil Engineering, Montana State University. 257 pp.

Avalanche accident case study: Persistent buried weak layer in the Central Idaho Mountains
Abromeit, D. and B. Cardozo. 2002. Avalanche accident case study: Persistent buried weak layer in the Central Idaho Mountains. Proceedings of the 2002 International Snow Science Workshop, Penticton, BC, Canada, 194-199.

Changes in spatial patterns of snow stability through time
Birkeland, K.W. and C.C. Landry. 2002. Changes in spatial patterns of snow stability through time. Proceedings of the 2002 International Snow Science Workshop, Penticton, BC, Canada, 482-490.

Size/frequency power law relationships for several groups of snow avalanche paths
Birkeland, K.W. and C.C. Landry. 2002. Size/frequency power law relationships for several groups of snow avalanche paths. Proceedings of the 2002 International Snow Science Workshop, Penticton, BC, Canada, 31.

Topographic influence on the spatial patterns of snow temperature gradients in a mountain snowpack
Deems, J., K. Birkeland, and K. Hansen. 2002. Topographic influence on the spatial patterns of snow temperature gradients in a mountain snowpack. Proceedings of the 2002 International Snow Science Workshop, Penticton, BC, Canada, 384-391.

Geographic variation in snow temperature gradients in a mountain snowpack
Deems, J., K. Birkeland, and K. Hansen. 2002. Geographic variation in snow temperature gradients in a mountain snowpack. Proceedings of the 2002 Western Snow Conference, Granby, Colorado, May 20-23, 2002, p. 130-137.

Integrating shear quality into stability test results
Johnson, R.F. and K.W. Birkeland. 2002. Integrating shear quality into stability test results. Proceedings of the 2002 International Snow Science Workshop, Penticton, BC, Canada 508-513.

Investigating the relationship between slab hardness and the stuffblock stability test
Kozak, M., K. Elder, K. Birkeland, C. Chapman. 2002. Investigating the relationship between slab hardness and the stuffblock stability test. The Avalanche Review, 21(2), 12-13.

Predicting snow layer hardness with meteorological factors
Kozak, M., K. Elder, K. Birkeland, and P. Chapman. 2002. Predicting snow layer hardness with meteorological factors. Proceedings of the 2002 International Snow Science Workshop, Penticton, BC, Canada, 329-336.

Scale invariant relationships for snow avalanches
Landry, C.C. and K.W. Birkeland. Scale invariant relationships for snow avalanches. Poster presented at the 2002 American Geophysical Union Conference, San Francisco, California, December, 2002.

Snow stability on uniform slopes: Implications for extrapolation
Landry, C., K. Birkeland, K. Hansen, J. Borkowski, R. Brown, and R. Aspinall. 2002. Snow stability on uniform slopes: Implications for extrapolation. Proceedings of the 2002 International Snow Science Workshop, Penticton, BC, Canada, 532-539.

A probabilistic technique for exploring multi-scale spatial patterns in historical avalanche data by combining GIS and meteorological nearest neighbors with an example from the Jackson Hole Ski Area, Wyoming (2 MB)
McCollister, C., K. Birkeland, K. Hansen, R. Aspinall, R. Comey. 2002. A probabilistic technique for exploring multi-scale spatial patterns in historical avalanche data by combining GIS and meteorological nearest neighbors with an example from the Jackson Hole Ski Area, Wyoming. Proceedings of the 2002 International Snow Science Workshop, Penticton, BC, Canada, 109-116.

2001

Spatial patterns of snow stability throughout a small mountain range
Birkeland, K.W. 2001. Spatial patterns of snow stability throughout a small mountain range. Journal of Glaciology 47(157), 176-186.

The major snow avalanche cycle of February 1986 in the western United States
Birkeland, K.W. and C.J. Mock. 2001. The major snow avalanche cycle of February 1986 in the western United States. Natural Hazards 24(1), 75-95.

Avalanche extremes and atmospheric circulation patterns
Birkeland, K.W., C.J. Mock, and J.J. Shinker. 2001. Avalanche extremes and atmospheric circulation patterns. Annals of Glaciology 32, 135-140.

A statistical validation of the SNOWPACK model in a Montana climate
Lundy, C., R. Brown, E. Adams, K. Birkeland, and M. Lehning. 2001. A statistical validation of the SNOWPACK model in a Montana climate. Cold Regions Science and Technology 33(2-3), 237-246.

2000

Snow avalanche climatology of the western United States mountain ranges
Mock, C.J. and K.W. Birkeland. 2000. Snow avalanche climatology of the western United States mountain ranges. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 81(10), 2367-2392.

Statistical validation of a numerical snow cover model and preliminary experimental results to facilitate model improvement (2.2 MB)
Lundy, C.C. 2000. Statistical validation of a numerical snow cover model and preliminary experimental results to facilitate model improvement. M.S. Thesis, Department of Civil Engineering, Montana State University. 106 pp.

Birkeland, K.W. and D. Abromeit. 2000. The "new" Forest Service National Avalanche Center. The Avalanche Review 19(1):1-7.

Gassner, M., H.-J. Etter, K. Birkeland, and T. Leonard. 2000. NXD2000: An improved avalanche forecasting program based on the nearest neighbor method. Proceedings of the 2000 International Snow Science Workshop, Big Sky, Montana, 52-59.

Kozak, M., K. Elder, and K. Birkeland. 2000. The spatial and temporal variability of slab hardness. Proceedings of the 2000 International Snow Science Workshop, Big Sky, Montana, 115-120.

Lundy, C., R. Brown, E. Adams, K. Birkeland, M. Lehning. 2000. A statistical validation of the SNOWPACK model in a Montana climate. Proceedings of the 2000 International Snow Science Workshop, Big Sky, Montana, 259-265.

McCollister, C., K. Birkeland, K. Hansen, and R. Aspinall. 2000. Using GIS to visualize historical avalanche data. Proceedings of the 2000 International Snow Science Workshop, Big Sky, Montana, 439.

1999

The stuffblock snow stability test: Comparability with the rutschblock, usefulness in different snow climates, and repeatability between observers
Birkeland, K.W. and R.F. Johnson. 1999. The stuffblock snow stability test: Comparability with the rutschblock, usefulness in different snow climates, and repeatability between observers. Cold Regions Science and Technology 30, 115-123.

Simulation of alpine snow distribution in the northern Colorado Rocky Mountains using a numerical snow-transport model (3.3 MB)
Greene, E.M. 1999. Simulation of alpine snow distribution in the northern Colorado Rocky Mountains using a numerical snow-transport model. M.S. Thesis, Department of Atmospheric Science, Colorado State University. 79 pp.

Mock, C.J. and K.W. Birkeland. 1999. Avalanche climate regions of the western United States: An update. The Avalanche Review 17(3):6-7.

1998

Terminology and predominant processes associated with the formation of weak layers of near-surface crystals in the mountain snowpack
Birkeland, K.W. 1998. Terminology and predominant processes associated with the formation of weak layers of near-surface crystals in the mountain snowpack. Arctic and Alpine Research 30(2), 193-199.

Near-surface faceted crystals formed by diurnal recrystallization: A case study of weak layer formation in the mountain snowpack and its contribution to avalanche formation
Birkeland, K.W., R.F. Johnson, and D.S. Schmidt. 1998. Near-surface faceted crystals formed by diurnal recrystallization: A case study of weak layer formation in the mountain snowpack and its contribution to avalanche formation. Arctic and Alpine Research 30(2) 199-204.

Birkeland, K.W. 1998. Snow stability patterns throughout the Bridger Range, Montana. Proceedings of the 1998 International Snow Science Workshop, Sunriver, Oregon, 362-367.

Birkeland, K.W. 1998. Forming faceted crystals. The Beacon: A newletter for Friends of the CAIC, 3(1), 4-5.

Near-surface faceted crystals: Sometimes today's great skiing can become tomorrow's avalanche nightmare
Birkeland, K.W. 1998. Near-surface faceted crystals: Sometimes today's great skiing can become tomorrow's avalanche nightmare. The Avalanche Review, 17(1), 6-7.

Birkeland, K.W. 1998. The Gallatin National Forest Avalanche Center. The Avalanche Review, 16(4), 1-3.

Johnson, R.F. and K.W. Birkeland. Effectively using and interpreting stability tests. Proceedings of the 1998 International Snow Science Workshop, Sunriver, Oregon, 562-565.

Stock, J., K. Elder and K. Birkeland. Near-surface faceted crystals and their effect on snow stability, Red Mountain Pass Corridor, Colorado. Proceedings of the 66th Western Snow Conference, Snowbird, Utah, 143-146.

1997

Spatial and temporal variations in snow stability and snowpack conditions throughout the Bridger Mountains, Montana (14 MB)
Birkeland, K.W. 1997. Spatial and temporal variations in snow stability and snowpack conditions throughout the Bridger Mountains, Montana. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Geography, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona. 205 pp.

1996

Atmospheric circulation patterns associated with heavy snowfall events, Bridger Bowl, Montana, U.S.A.
Birkeland, K.W. and C. Mock. 1996. Atmospheric circulation patterns associated with heavy snowfall events, Bridger Bowl, Montana, U.S.A. Mountain Research and Development 16(3), 281-286.

The stuffblock snow stability test
Birkeland, K.W., R.F. Johnson, and D. Herzberg. 1996. The stuffblock snow stability test. U.S. Forest Service Missoula Technology Development Center publication 9623-2836-MTDC.

Birkeland, K.W., R.F. Johnson, and D.S. Schmidt. 1996. Near-surface faceted crystals: Conditions necessary for growth and contribution to avalanche formation, southwest Montana, U.S.A. Proceedings of the 1996 International Snow Science Workshop, Banff, Alberta, 75-79.

Birkeland, K.W. 1996. The effect of ski run cutting and artificial snowmaking on snow water equivalent at Big Sky Ski Area, Montana. Proceedings of the 64th Western Snow Conference, Bend, Oregon, 137-148.

Birkeland, K.W. 1996. Avalanche hazard analysis for the various alternatives, New World environmental impact statement, Gallatin National Forest, Bozeman, Montana, 25 pp.

1995

The spatial variability of snow resistance on potential avalanche slopes
Birkeland, K.W., K.J. Hansen, and R.L. Brown. 1995. The spatial variability of snow resistance on potential avalanche slopes. J. Glaciology 41(137), 183-190.

1994

Snow science, necessary instruments, and the scientific method
Birkeland, K.W. and K. Elder. 1994. Snow science, necessary instruments, and the scientific method. The Avalanche Review, 12(6), 3-7.

Johnson, R.F. and K.W. Birkeland. 1994. The stuffblock: A simple and inexpensive snow stability test. Proceedings of the 1994 International Snow Science Workshop, Snowbird, Utah.

1993

Birkeland, K.W. 1993. Recipe for starting a regional avalanche center. The Avalanche Review, 11(6), 4.

1992

Avalanches and extreme snowmobilers
Birkeland, K.W. 1992. Avalanches and extreme snowmobilers. The Avalanche Review, 10(4), 1-3.

Anatomy of a snowmobile-triggered avalanche fatality
Birkeland, K.W. 1992. Anatomy of a snowmobile-triggered avalanche fatality. The Avalanche Review, 10(6), 5.

1990

Brown, R.L. and K.W. Birkeland. 1990. A comparison of the digital resistograph with the RAM penetrometer. Proceedings of the 1990 International Snow Science Workshop, Bigfork, Montana, 19-30.

1988

An inexpensive bomb tram for aerial detonations
Birkeland, K.W. and T. Leonard. 1988. An inexpensive bomb tram for aerial detonations. The Avalanche Review, 6(4), 8.  (for another article on bomb trams by Bridger Bowl's Ray Dombrowski from the same issue of The Avalanche Review, click HERE »

1987

Winter Ecology
Birkeland, K.W. and J.C. Halfpenny. 1987. Winter Ecology. The Science Teacher 54, 42-46.